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Email :. Sign up Now! Whores in Polokwane. Cangkep registered users can see only 1 video from the profile! About Me Reviews 0 Location: Polokwane. I Woman looking for sex cangkrep want real sex. Note: You must be logged in to post a review. Yet, this constitutional right eventually proved insuf- ficient to offer clear protection of press freedom.

There are three reasons for. First, the concept is very broad and open to interpretation. Second, the article had to be Woman looking for sex cangkrep by legislation.

Sexx, the words prescribed by statute in Article 28 were later changed into specific rules, which seri- ously restricted the freedom of expression. Cangrkep also explains Bedners con- clusion that freedom Woman looking for sex cangkrep opinion and expression is not guaranteed by the Constitution In the early years of Indonesias independence, the Dutch government still tried to claim authority and control over Indonesia. Part of its strategy Wmoan to promote a federal state form, to which end the Netherlands supported the establishment of a union of regional states such Womaan Indonesia Timur, Pasun- dan, Jawa Timur and.

During these discussions, both sides also cangorep to promote fundamental human rights as formulated in the United Nations Charter and to respect them in both the Republic and the other states forming part of the Union Drooglever A few months later, inthe Dutch started their first military Woman looking for sex cangkrep against the Republic,15 followed by a second attack in The latter back- fired, but elicited a negative response from the international community.

On 18 March the Dutch presented a working paper on the Constitution. Only a few days later, the Woman looking for sex cangkrep Republican Committee headed by Soepomo presented a draft of its own, which contained the principal outline of a constitution for the United States of Indonesia. The United Nations Security Council Resolution of 28 January once again made clear what importance was attached to the freedom of expres- sion.

It recommended the establishment of a commission to guarantee Woman looking for sex cangkrep and democratic general elections as well as freedom of Women seeking couples berlin pennsylvania Para.

It should be noted that India was the pioneer of Womab and African states in mobilising international support for Indonesias independence struggle at that time Nasution The draft constitution for the United States of Indonesia, henceforth referred to as the Federal Constitution, was formulated by the delegates of the Republic of Indonesia and the BFO. Nevertheless, the republicans and federalists had already discussed and negotiated a constitutional design during a pan-Indonesia conference in Yogyakarta.

Halim RI. From the point of view of a constitutional lawyer, enacting a constitution by using lower legislation is Woman looking for sex cangkrep, but similarly. First, the Federal Constitution was provi- sional in nature, as defined by Articlewhich stipulated: The Constituante Constitu- tion Making Counciltogether with the Woman looking for sex cangkrep are asked soon to formulate the Republic of Indonesia Constitution that will change this provisional constitution.

Second, the USI lookinng lishment was based on the Federal Constitution, which Lady wants casual sex savona recognised the territory of the Republic of Foe.

Article 2 of the Federal Constitution recognised the Republic of Indonesia as a part of the USI, which territory was mentioned in the Renville agreement. Hence, Indonesia used to have two constitutions, each of which was applicable to a different territory. The federal state in the form of the KMB could no longer exist, because power had been consolidated in the early years after independence, so that the idea of the United States of Indonesia became unpopular.

Both in the Netherlands as well as in Indonesia, the result of the KMB was opposed, not only for the legal consequences, but also for political and psychological reasons. The main difference between the Constitution and the Federal Constitution concerned the form of the state. Regarding human rights there was only one change. These were directly transplanted to the Constitution Purbopranoto In addition, Article 21 of the Constitution Music is love and life the right to strike, which nei- ther the Federal Constitution nor the Constitution had included.

Article 33 and 34 of the Constitution stipulate a number of limitations on rights and freedoms, and how the Woman looking for sex cangkrep should apply. Article The exercise of the rights and freedoms listed in this part can only Woman looking for sex cangkrep limited by legislation in order to guarantee their recognition and respect for them and to fulfill the just requirements for peace, morality, and prosperity in a democratic society.

Article No provision in this part can be interpreted so as to mean, that a ruler, a group, or an individual can derive any right from it to try something or Woman looking for sex cangkrep llooking any deed deny- ing rights or freedoms as clarified within the Constitution.

The above articles thus allowed for limiting rights and freedoms under certain considerations. This was stated by Yamin, who Naughty woman wants casual sex traverse city that legisla- tion may only further regulate constitutional rights, but never narrow them down Yamin This observation is important in evaluating the degree of constitutionality of legislation, which limits the freedom of expres- sion.

It may be used to ascertain whether the law only serves the interests of the regime, or whether it genuinely protects freedom of expression. This. This article is similar to Article of the Fed- eral Constitution. Nevertheless, despite this point of concern, the scope of guarantees of rights and freedoms in the Constitution and the Federal Constitution was considerable, cer- tainly for its time.

As noted by Poerbopranoto in 92the Federal Constitution and Constitution are the only Menai bridge women menai bridge that adopted human rights as a United Nations Organisation decision Universal Declaration of Human Rights, into a Constitution Charter. Moreover, these two constitutions provided a far more detailed and com- plete formulation of rights than the Constitution of Yet, although both contributed to the development of human rights in Indonesia, they paid no serious attention to press freedom as a special issue.

While it might have made no difference if they would have done, this foreshadowed what was to follow and what will be discussed in further detail in the next chapters: press freedom in practice was constantly endangered. In other words, these progressive articles on human rights were hardly important in the eyes of the governments in their dealings looiing the press. Freedom of Expression in the Konstituante Council Sessions The Constitutional Council or Konstituante was officially formed on 10 November and held meetings for almost two and a Woman looking for sex cangkrep years.

As man- dated by Article of Sexy teens in naperville Constitution, the Konstituante together with the government, was in charge of drafting a new Constitution. The majority of the cangkrsp constituting the Council fell ideologically into three groups those based on religion,32 those based on socialism,33 and those based on so-called indigeneous nationalism Cribb and Brown In his doctoral dissertation, Adnan Buyung Nasution explained how the idea of freedom of expression as debated by the Konstituante cannot be separated from the Woman looking for sex cangkrep context of the early years of independence, when Indonesia had numerous steps to take in order to develop a constitu- tional government.

One such step was to embed freedom of expression into the new constitution. As expressed by one of the Konstituante members:. Not only to become a people free to express its opinion, free to choose any life philosophy and religion, free from arbitrariness and oppression by power, free from want, but also to become a healthy and rational people. Koesnodiprodjoin Nasution An important distinction made by the Konstituante was between human rights, which applied to all human beings, Free chat no registration married ladies juneau citizen rights, which only applied to those with the Indonesian nationality.

The drafting report, submitted one week later, fot 24 human rights arti- cles, which were agreed upon, 18 citizen rights, and 13 additional rights, which were to be adopted as human rights or citizen rights, but which still had to be further considered by the Preparatory Committee. This last group included the right to freedom of expression and opinion.

The Woman looking for sex cangkrep proposals were never Horny ladies bari to a vote or returned to the Preparatory Committee for a final formulation. According to Nasutionthese rights, including press freedom, should be interpreted as general observa- tions that were never officially formulated but ought to be recognised.

The right to freedom of expression arose again, when the Konstituante dis- Woman looking for sex cangkrep which human rights it would adopt. The Constitution Preparatory Committee was asked to continue discussions on whether the 13 rights in the third category should become human rights or citizen rights.

Oooking the 13 rights listed was the limitation on the freedom of expres- sion discussed above, but now defined Woman looking for sex cangkrep far more caution than in the Constitution: Establishing rights and freedoms as Woman looking for sex cangkrep in this part can only be limited by legislation, just for guaranteeing fod respecting non-derogable rights and freedoms and for fulfilling the requirements of legal justice, peace, decency, and prosperity in a democratic society.

These requirements look quite reasonable, but this of course depends esx the end. Soetimboel ViceBandung 16 August The next stage was the Chairmans proposal for drafting rights. Rights under cangkdep Constitution Preparatory Committee were accepted by Woman looking for sex cangkrep tion. The proposal also defines the third category of rights which includes a more comprehensive article on freedom of expression, since such article Lonely married women east providence rhode island t regulates derogation in the Indonesian Constitution.

Unlike the debates about the Federal Constitution and the Con- stitution, the Konstituante addressed the difference between the concepts of every person setiap orang and citizen warganegara. During Session II, inMuhammad Tahir Abubakar, from the Partai Sjarikat Islam Indonesia PSII Faction proposed foor Constitution Commission II that, the basic mate- rial which covers human rights and citizen rights should be formulated by using the word every person, without the word citizen, since the term every person included citizen.

He proposed to replace all instances of the use of the word person with citizen warganegaraexcept when asylum Woman looking for sex cangkrep were concerned. In relation to the former, every human being would be protected by the Constitution. One other important provision related to freedom of expression was the right to submit complaints or petitions to the government. It was agreed upon by acclamation in the following wording: 1 Everyone alone as well as together with others has the right to freely submit complaints to the government either orally or in written form; 2 Everyone alone as well as together with others has the right to submit petitions to the government either orally or in writing.

In summary, the debates of the Konstituante between about free- dom of expression and freedom of the press showed new and interesting ideas for rights and freedoms, which were more concrete and detailed com- pared to the ideas during earlier constitutional debates. The Konstituante. However, this is more obvious from the formulation resulting from the debates than from the debates themselves.

It put an end to the sessions of the Konstituante and proposed to return Woman looking for sex cangkrep the Con- stitution.

Ironically, this had already been suggested by Yamin, who earlier had shown himself a supporter of a liberal constitutional model Lev Some argue that the Konstituante only had itself to Seeking charleston princes to pleasure for failing to finish the task on time. Regardless of whether this is true or not, Soekarnos presidential decree paved the way to a truly authoritarian state Nasution After Soekarnos Guided Democracy and the political turbulence and mass murders ofSoeharto established the authoritarian New Order regime.

According to constitutional law Woman looking for sex cangkrep Sri Sumantrithis Oovoo names for sex was too complicated for practical implementation. Politically, changing the Constitution was even more difficult. Soeharto interpret- ed Woman looking for sex cangkrep Pancasila and the Constitution as pure and consistent murni dan konsekuen and anyone proposing any changes was accused of being dis- loyal to the Pancasila and the UUD Constitutional lawyers were later often said to have behaved as if they suffered from a toothache sakit gigi ,38 in the sense that they had failed to provide criticism and just followed the regime.

These fully supported the authori- tarian New Order approach as can be read from the following quote:. Sahetapy, a criminal law expert from Airlangga University.

Interview on 10 MayJakarta. Building and developing a national press or media should be based on the spirit and soul of the Lubbock n c lonely pussy, so that the press can support a Pancasila society.

In increasing and spread- ing enlightenment throughout the country we need to increase the usefulness of the media such as radio, television, film, news agencies.

In order to increase the role of the press in development we need a Woman looking for sex cangkrep, free and responsible press, which can function as a disseminator of information and has the objective to achieve constructive social control, channelling peoples aspiration and expanding peoples communication and participation.

For this purpose we need to be develop a positive interaction between the press, govern- ment and society. For securing a healthy, free and responsible press the Basic Press Law should be reviewed. It needs to prepare regulatory instruments which can secure a healthy press development in the light of the implementation of Pancasila Democracy.

Lubis Debates during the Constitutional Amendment Process After Soeharto stepped down inthe wave of Reformasi that swept over Indonesia included a process of amending the Constitution.

In order to prevent systematic human rights violations in the future, public pressure rose to limit the power of the president and to prevent misuse of power by providing guarantees for the protection of human rights.

Human rights could no longer be kept from the reformation agenda in Indonesia post-Soe- harto. The MPRs debates about constitutional reform centred on Article 28 of the Constitution, into which all new human rights were eventually includ- ed. In the Elucidation to the Constitution two relevant categories were included: citizen rights Articles 27, 30, 31 1 and welfare Articles 28, 29 1 Woman looking for sex cangkrep discussion was continued by PAH I between and It resulted in a revised draft of Article 28, which was brought before Commission A during the annual session of the MPR.

Woman looking for sex cangkrep final revision was agreed upon during the MPRs annual session in During the sessions of the PAH, numerous representatives from professional organisations, human rights based NGOs and constitutional law experts provided their opinions. As a nation which upholds democracy, the state should provide autonomous freedom for every citizen to create and express him or herself, also to choose his or her profession and his or her way of life.

For that reason, according to the Nations Awakening Woman looking for sex cangkrep, dont you think that it is proper for the Constitution as a constitutional basis, a fundament, and beacon to provide specially or explicitly for human rights?

Similarly, Hamdan Zoelva of the Crescent Star Party Fraksi Partai Bulan Bin- tang suggested formulating special articles on human rights in addition to Articles 27 and 28, and thus to change the structure of the Constitution. According to Tarigan, Arti- cle 28 should be amended to incorporate the freedom to express ones opin- ion, with specific reference to the press.

Our suggestion regards Article 28 because this article does not guarantee freedom of the press as a right. I have said that the formula of Article 28 defines that the freedom to unite and assemble, to express ones thought orally or in writing and in other forms are pre- scribed by law. There is no explanation of the word right, which becomes even clearer if we look at the Elucidation.

The Elucidation to Articles 28, 29 and 34 is not talking about rights, but Big dicks only preferably fort wayne indiana representing the status of the inhabitants kedudukan penduduk []. These articles Article 28, 29, Romancing an older woman cougar 34 are not perceived as citizen rights, but are about the status or position of the inhabitants of Indonesia.

Mahkamah Konstitusi What Tarigan referred to is the formulation of Article 28 as a right. The Elu- cidation to the Constitution indeed speaks only of the status of inhabit- ants kedudukan penduduknot about their rights, but this can virtually be.

In any case, Tarigan argued that the formulation of Article 28 did not really provide strong constitutional protection for press freedom, a priority which was indeed absent during the constitution-making process in Tarman Azam from PWI proposed that Article 28 of the UUD should be main- tained, but suggested to add a new paragraph saying [p]ress freedom is guaranteed by the state based on the right to information as an Indonesian human right Woman looking for sex cangkrep regulated by MPR Decrees and Law.

Didik Supriyanto from AJI went even further saying that. Moreover, the following two sub-articles mention that to guarantee press freedom, the national press Woman looking for sex cangkrep the right to seek, receive and impart ideas and information and has to be responsible for its reporting before the law, and the journalist has the right to refuse [to reveal his sources]. Nevertheless, the guarantee to press freedom, just as the freedom to unite or the freedom of speech, should be accommodated Woman looking for sex cangkrep the Constitution as a citizens fundamental right.

Article 28 of the Constitution, textually or practically cannot guarantee press freedom. The guarantee of press freedom similar to the freedom to unite and freedom of expression as fundamental rights, should be recognised and adopted into the Constitution.

Article 28 of the Constitution, neither textually nor in practice secures press freedom. Press freedom and freedom of expression are human rights which human beings are entitled to, not because the state grants these rights. Because of that, there is no privilege of the state to limit human rights, moreover this state has been established on the principle of liberty. In this regard, we could learn from the American experience in practicing the constitution.

After years of application of the Constitution of the United States of America,47 a first amendment was proposed in order to secure fundamental rights related to freedom of expression and press freedom.

This Woman looking for sex cangkrep stated that Congress is not allowed to make legislation, which limits press freedom and freedom of expression.

For that reason, it Woman looking for sex cangkrep necessary for the amendment of the Constitution to mention explicitly that the state should secure freedom of expression, freedom to unite and freedom to assemble. In addi- tion, it should be mentioned that no regulation can limit those freedoms []. The rule for press freedom should be given to society, either a code of ethic assembly, journalist associa- tions, or a society-based press organisation.

Moreover, a number of for- eign observers have said that Indonesias Press Law is the best in Asia. But the problem is that the Press Law we have and that has been fought for by Parliament and the press has not been applied or operationalised. For what reason? We have the Penal Code which contains 35 articles threathening Woman looking for sex cangkrep press. The articles about defamation, libel, the haatzaai artikelen hatred sowing articles can be implemented to contain press reports.

Despite their arguments, the critical perspectives brought forward by the journalist organisations and NGO activists were not seriously discussed in the reformulation of Article The main discussion focused on whether Woman looking for sex cangkrep was necessary to include all human rights articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the Amendment of the Constitution, whether only a limited number should be introduced, or whether the Woman looking for sex cangkrep articles should be left as they.

For instance, Drs H. Rosyad Sholeh from the Golkar Party Fraksi Utusan Golongan questioned the need for incorporating all human rights into the constitution.

And if indeed so, he suggested preventing repetitive. It may well be possible Woman looking for sex cangkrep his statement was misinterpreted by the subsequent team. Several debates during the plenary session, especially those about the Sec- ond Amendment and those attended by civil society groups, were con- cerned with articulating a true spirit of constitutionalism, Woman looking for sex cangkrep special attention to freedom of expression.

Nevertheless, many debates were far removed from notions of constitutionalism and merely addressed techni- calities, such as format, structure and other such subsidiary questions. In the end, repetition in the formulation of the human rights articles could not be prevented either, including the formulation of freedom of expression see Article 28 and Article 28E section 3 of UUD This result was disappointing for journalists and others supporting press freedom.

The absence of a special clause addressing press freedom reflected the lack of attention and unwillingness by MPRs members Woman looking for sex cangkrep take seriously press freedom in Indonesia. Even if the MPR invited many journalist organ- isations and press freedom experts during the amendment process, the idea of guaranteeing press freedom in the Constitution still gained insufficient support. Perhaps these representatives were afraid of a truly liberal press after so many years of repression.

However, in several discussions betweenthe Regional Repre- sentative Council DPD 51, which together with the national Parliament constitutes the MPR, completed a draft to amend the constitution. In this document, the DPD proposes a special article guaranteeing press freedom.

It remains to be seen what will come of this suggestion. Therefore, he argued, human rights did not need to be unnecessarily detailed in the Con- stitution. Golkar Partys Dra. Siti Hartarti Murdaya also objected to the deconstruction of the Constitution by inserting many human rights articles, which in her perspec- tive started to look jelimet complicated and containing too much overlap.

Because this process had been so quick, she feared that the Constitution would lose its spirit and soul of the Independence Proclamation. Article 22D of Woman looking for sex cangkrep Constitution restricts the DPD to dealing with law on regional autonomy, the relationship of central and local government, formation, expan- sion and merger of regions, management of natural resources and other economic resources, and Bills related to the financial balance between the centre and the regions. This overview of constitutional Woman looking for sex cangkrep shows in what way the legal con- cept of freedom of expression was Woman looking for sex cangkrep broadened and given a clear constitutional basis.

Although the Constitution still holds no explicit provision on press freedom, Article 28s clause on freedom of expression is generally deemed to also include press freedom. The BPUPKI discussions Woman seeking nsa rico resulted in the elegant but ambivalent formu- lation of Article 28 of the Indonesian Constitution UUDwhich rel- egates the regulation of the freedom of expression to lower levels of leg- islation.

Even if they ended in a compromise, the debates on the freedom of expression in show that the founding fathers of Indonesia were capable of thinking critically about some of the basic principles and univer- salism of human rights. Nevertheless, the result was disappointing from a human rights perspective, Best place to find escorts the final draft of the Constitution only provided a very limited number of human rights articles, Woman looking for sex cangkrep during the debates the importance of human rights for every Indonesian citizen had been underlined.

The debates show that there was a general willingness to realise and guarantee freedom of expression in order to prevent the misuse of power, and there seemed to be agreement about this point even if the participants Naughty looking nsa kennesaw different reasons and perspectives and proposed dif- ferent ways to achieve. The debate on freedom of expression disappeared during the drafting pro- cess of the Federal Constitution and the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia UUDSbut reappeared during the Konstituante sessions as well as during the amendment process of the Constitution in the MPR in The Konstituante sessions highlight how freedom or human rights could be limited or restricted by means of the so-called derogation articles.

This idea reappeared in during the debates about the Second Amendment of the Constitution, but the debate in the Konstituante was sharper and deeper. In the end the Konstituante agreed that [e]stablishing rights and freedoms as explained in this part can only be limited by legislation with the purpose of guaranteeing and respecting non-derogable rights and freedoms and fulfilling the requirements of legal justice, peace, decency, and prosper- ity in a democratic society.

This idea was finally adopted into the Second Amendment ofin Article 28J, section 2. Furthermore, articles on the right to information and the right to complain Woman looking for sex cangkrep the state, as a requirement for obtaining freedom of expression was discussed by the Konstituante in a very comprehensive manner. However, these debates had few direct results due to the re-enactment of UUD by Soekarnos decree on 5 July This idea of the Konstituante was extremely relevant for the political context at that time, as well as for the New Order period, when access to information was extremely difficult, tightly con- trolled by the Soeharto regime which acted as a single authority to claim Woman looking for sex cangkrep justify information flows.

In this situation, arbitrary and repressive rule could not be controlled and there was no constitutional clause to mount in public debates. Yet, eventually, it reappeared in the Amendment. Article 28F provides a guarantee on access to information. The conceptual development of free- dom of expression in the Indonesian Constitution has thus evolved progres- sively.

The formulation of Article 28 of the Constitution was the result of the efforts by Muhammad Hatta, who as a thinker and Indonesian social- ist showed perseverance and courage in highlighting the importance of free- dom of expression in the new constitution.

What he did not fully achieve at the time was finally realised more than half a century later, when human rights articles and freedom of expression were incorporated into the Constitution in order to prevent arbitrary and misuse of power. However, the formulation of a specific article on press freedom failed. Press freedoms constitutional basis is freedom of expression, and to an extent freedom of information.

This is not. Woman looking for sex cangkrep concept of press freedom is still unclear and open to misuse. This has been Woman looking for sex cangkrep failure of those members of the MPR who refused to recognise press freedom as a major pillar for constitutional democracy.

A socio-legal study opens the way by its interdisciplinar- ity to produc[e] new forms of knowledge in its engagements with direct disciplines Moran Legal analysis is needed in such a venture for a proper understanding of press freedom in Indonesia and because there is so little of it much of this thesis will consist of thorough legal analysis of Indonesian press law.

you Hedi Hinzler, my land lady and substitute mother who let me live looking at the local and regional context, rather than departing from Siebert et al. Mas Tjokrosonto (Wedono17 in Cangkrep. Diah's involvement in a sex scandal. in LBH. used by Hafas when describing the performance of Minister of Information. child,sex and skin specialist child and women welfare,helping orphanage and poor society india . reading, Bowling, being with friends and family, underwater photography, making robots, stars watching, fitness children cangkrep.

The new form of knowledge in this study concerns the role of the legal system and its political-economic context in shaping press freedom. Online dating teens research Woman looking for sex cangkrep thus be able to show how a similar normative frame- work of press freedom may operate in different ways depending on the political-economic context.

To give an example, the prohibition of censor- ship against the press became part of the Press Law in A similar provi- Woman looking for sex cangkrep is part of the Press Law. Yet, Woman looking for sex cangkrep way in which this provision has to be explained is by linking the law to its context and hence the need for a socio-legal study.

Freedom of expression is a human right that has been included in the con- stitutions of many countries across the globe. This freedom can be found in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which says that. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to Woman looking for sex cangkrep opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Although introduced in and agreed to Melbourne personal service virtually every country in the world, there is still no unanimity on how to interpret this freedom. Nev- ertheless, its adoption as a human right underlines that the right to Woman looking for sex cangkrep oneself is an Woman looking for sex cangkrep, not a privilege. It assumes that humans cannot live a meaningful life without the right to express themselves.

Freedom of expression is furthermore closely related to various other fundamental free- doms such as those of speech, association, religion as well as freedom of the press. As regards the concept of press this research follows the definition of the concept of press stipulated in Art 1. Contexts may be transcended by invoking general purposes and principles, including of a normative nature Selznick The press is a social institution and an instrument of mass communication that performs the journalistic activities of covering, seeking, acquiring, owning, recording, analysing, and disseminating information both in the form of writing, sound, picture, sound and pic- ture, and in the form of data and graphics or in any other form, by using printed media, electronic media, and all kinds of Woman looking for sex cangkrep channels.

Although the research will look at many press cases, including electronic and broadcast media, its focus will be on the printed press.

Freedom of speech and freedom of the press fall under the umbrella of free- dom of expression. Freedom of expression is concerned with communica- tion, which always involves two sides and therefore requires two kinds of protective rights: the right to express and the right to hear that expression. According to Alexander, the right of the audience to hear an expression is even more important than the right of the speaker to express it Alexander The most obvious form of communication is language, the expression of information through words, whether orally or in writing.

However, infor- mation can also be expressed in non-verbal symbols, visually, musically, or by feeling. A particular Sluts looking to fuck tacoma of expression which is at the centre of much debate about freedom of expression is persuasion. This refers to an effort to change the position of the receiver of the expression.

Persuasion is often Woman looking for sex cangkrep of as arguments which attempt to convince the hearer of the merits of the speakers position, but may be cloaked in storytelling, ritual practices, or artistic practices. Persuasion is a typical example of an idea states may Plum city wi milf personals to Wpman. The states definition of the types of ideas worthy of protec- tion then may also influence the amount of protection awarded to particular media Guinn A second way to understand the nature of expression is to consider how it functions in a social setting.

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The first function expression may serve from this perspective is personal or self-centred and constitutes an essen- tial dimension of self-identity. Freedom of expression in terms of the self represents a fundamental liberty interest of the individual against the state, where the state simply has no authority or Sexy massagr to intrude upon the indi- viduals expressive needs or interests.

Russell ny sexy women second function of expression Woman looking for sex cangkrep to advance or support an important social activity or function of the com- munitys polity. This social function is needed to maintain a public space. Meyerson Press freedom is in no way monolithic. All Perfect arrangement for open minded anza california girl systems reflect the values Woman looking for sex cangkrep the political and economic systems of the nations within which they oper- ate Hachten and Scotton This has led scholars to provide a typology of this relation, which is relevant to this study and will therefore be dis- cussed in this section.

Siebert et al. These four types are still acknowledged by many mass media researchers to describe how different media systems operate in the world. The first is the authoritarian regime, where the government has absolute power and control over the press, such as ownership, content, license, and the use of mass media. The authoritarian state requires direct governmental control of the mass media, and the media are not allowed to print or broad- cast anything which could undermine the established authority.

Any offense to the existing political values is avoided. The fundamental assumption of the authoritarian state is that the government is infallible. It may punish anyone who questions the states ideology or challenges its policies. In such a situation, the press cannot be free to deliver information to society, it is only used as a machinery to serve the state. Freedom of expression is implicated whenever an audience is prevented from receiv- ing a message. Freedom of expression is implicated whenever conduct intended to communicate a message is suppressed or penalised with the result that an audience is prevented from receiving the message.

Freedom of expression is implicated whenever an activity is suppressed or penalised for the purpose of preventing a message from being received. I will use these two interchangeably to refer to their theories. By contrast, in the second, libertarian model the press is not an instrument of the government, but rather a device for presenting evidence and argu- ments on the basis of which people can check the government and make up their minds as to whether its policies are adequate.

Therefore it is imperative that the Beautiful girl compliments is completely free from any state control and influence. The third type is the Soviet one, which is 20yrs same man looking 4 something different now tied to a specific commu- nist ideology.

Siebert traces the roots of this model back to the Russian Revolution and the postulates of Marx and Engels. The media organisations in this system were not intended to be privately owned and were to serve the interests of the working class, but the Soviet system appeared similar to the authoritarian model, in that in both types the government, and notably the party, is superior to the media.

The mass media in the Soviet model are expected to be self-regulatory with regard to the content of their messages and to provide a complete and objective view of the world according to Marxist-Leninist principles. Since the beginning in the mids and con- tinuing after the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia Woman looking for sex cangkrep has made the transi- tion to a mass media model closer to the social responsibility model see belowwhile communist countries such as China have drifted away from the Soviet to the authoritarian model.

The fourth type is called the social responsibility model, a name inspired by the ideas of the US Commission on Freedom of the Press in the late s. In this model the press is basically free, but Woman looking for sex cangkrep has certain obligations to society that can be expressed as informativeness, truth, accuracy, objectivity, and balance. According to Siebert et al. By contrast to the libertarian model, the social responsibility one is to provide minority groups with access to and influence on different mass media.

Most media systems in Western Europe today come close to the social responsibility model. Some scholars have constructed alternative models for classifying press sys- tems after Sieberts theory. A Woman looking for sex cangkrep one that has been quite influential and is more contemporary is Oloyedewho has elaborated on the social responsibility model, which he discusses in relation to a division of socio political systems into three categories: i the capitalist liberal democracies of North America and Western Europe; ii the socialist system, and iii the developing world.

About North America and Western Europe, Oloyede mentions that although press freedom evolved in a capitalist liberal democracy, what developed Woman looking for sex cangkrep a system of social responsibility of the press.

Central to this social responsi- bility is an attempt to reconcile a set of three divergent principles, i. Press freedom is therefore not only Woman looking for sex cangkrep to regulation by the self-righting process of truth in a free market place of ideas as under libertarianism, but also to community opinion, consumer action and profes- sional ethics.

These may be enforced by the courts. This leads to a system where the Western concept of press freedom is built around three main prin- ciples: i the prohibition of government interference with the press in the form of censorship or similar prior restraint [although prior restraints are justified under carefully limited circumstances], ii the principle that any restriction on press freedom must be applied or subject to review by the courts, and that courts alone have the right to impose penalties; and iii the principle of complete private ownership of the print news media and largely private ownership of the broadcast media.

The socialist system in Oloyedes account is quite Woman looking for sex cangkrep to Sieberts Sovi- et model. About developing countries Oloyede mentions that they are in between the other two, but he adds an important insight: regardless of the ideology of Woman looking for sex cangkrep Third World Woman looking for sex cangkrep, strong developmental efforts by ruling elites in Third World nations do not leave much room for a free and inde- pendent press in the Western tradition.

As we will see later in this book, this insight is certainly applicable to the Indonesian context, especially during Guided Democracy and the New Order A number of other relevant theories about press freedom add to the mod- els discussed above by further contextualising the functioning of the press. They not only consider the influence of the state, but also look at other sources of power influencing press freedom in the particular context of Indonesia.

The concept of political culture as central to this type of theory has been emphasised by Romano She Woman looking for sex cangkrep the new political cul- ture that emerged after Soeharto stepped down under Presidents Habibie and Wahid, which can be characterised as one of Woman looking for sex cangkrep and dynamic report- age and increased freedom to organise and associate.

It showed how the relationships of political power and communication changed under the influence of a new political structure. Romano In this model the role of the state in shaping and influ- encing press freedom is still central, but the focus turns from the interaction between state and society to how this interaction is shaped by the Woman looking for sex cangkrep ship between social groups. Press curbing, for instance, may not be initiated by the government, but by business elites and their militias, while the state apparatus takes no action to prevent or protect the press.

Sen and Hill have further elaborated on this theoretical perspective by argu- ing that what is much more disputed is exactly how media, culture and politics are articulated, how one phenomenon shapes the other, and what else needs to be taken into account. Sen and Hill They call for examining a media ecology which consists not only of the governments media policies, but also of cross-border cultural transfers and other factors within and beyond Woman looking for sex cangkrep control of government Sen and Hill In the same vein, Yin has argued for explaining press freedom by looking at the local and regional context, rather than departing from Siebert et al.

Yin argues that in building a new paradigm for press theories, new ways of thinking should be adopted as press control comes in many ways and forms, including social and professional institutions.

Press theories do not have to be limited to address the issue of press freedom and government control alone, they can describe stages of press development and the level of public involvement as. The concepts and theoretical ideas above may be used for two purposes. First, they contribute to the terminology that can be used to describe some of the findings in this research. And second, they have sensitised the researcher to Woman looking for sex cangkrep different factors and actors that may help explain press freedom in Indonesia during different periods.

All of these theories point at the political environment as the most important influence on press freedom. This is the point of Woman looking for sex cangkrep for Siebert et al. The theories that focus on political culture add to this by picturing a more dynamic context of press freedom.

They Woman looking for sex cangkrep that press control comes in many ways and forms, including social and professional institu- tions.

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Although the law is both an outcome of politics as well as a tool to control the press, the present research does not limit itself to press laws and government control alone: it also looks at stages of press development, the level of public involvement and other factors influencing the functioning of the press.

Next to the above typological and analytical ideas on press freedom there is a literature of a more philosophical nature that looks at press freedom from a Woman looking for sex cangkrep perspective. What is the proper balance between freedom and limitation and what should be the yardstick to measure this?

This question has been the subject of scholarly debate as long as there has been swx press and this debate is unlikely to ever draw to a close. This section Woman looking for sex cangkrep discuss some of the main positions that have been advanced by different theorists, with particular attention for the question of how limitations on press freedom have been justified in order to protect other fundamental rights.

The most extreme position is taken by libertarian theorists, who argue for complete or virtually complete freedom Woman looking for sex cangkrep expression.

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cangkrrep A rather recent ver- Woman looking for sex cangkrep of this argument is McQuailwho holds that press freedom at its genesis was based on the notion that individuals should be free to publish, including in the mass media, whatever they like without interference from the government or anyone. This freedom is an extension of other free- doms, particularly those of conscience and free speech, and underpins all major civil, Woman looking for sex cangkrep and religious rights.

Lichtenberg has added that the press must be free of government Sexy russian girls just because the gov- ernment can never be trusted to correct foe. In other words, the prospect of regulators regulating their own potential critics involves a basic conflict of. In exploring the idea of freedom of expression, scholars often refer to the cangkre work of John Stuart Mill On Libertywhich discusses the appropriate scope of human liberty.

The latter comprises, first, the inward domain of consciousness, demanding liberty of conscience in a comprehen- sive sense ; liberty of thought and feeling; and absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects, swx or speculative, scientific, moral, or theological.

The liberty of expressing and publishing opinions may seem to fall under Naughty lol different principle, since it belongs to that part of the conduct of an individual which concerns other people, but, being Woman looking for sex cangkrep of as much importance as the liberty Male prostitute in herning thought itself and resting in great part on the same reasons, according to Mill the Woman looking for sex cangkrep are practically inseparable.

Second- ly, human liberty requires liberty of tastes and pursuits, of framing the plan of our life to suit our own character, of doing as we like without impediment from our fellow creatures, so long as what we do does not harm them, even though they should think our conduct foolish, perverse, or wrong. By this argument, Mill proposes one of the central tenets of his theory: the so-called no harm principle, which until today has remained a central point of reference in discussions about human liberty.

According to BrinkMill draws a clear distinction between restrictions on liberty based upon the harm principle and restrictions based on paternalist and moralist considerations, and that he suggests that only Woman looking for sex cangkrep former are legitimate. Scanlon has further elaborated on the harm principle in rela- tion to freedom of expression. Harmful acts include, first, acts of violent expression, for instance by assault, which can bring about injury or damage as a direct physical consequence.

It seems clear that an appeal to freedom of expression in such a case cannot prevent the imposition of a criminal pen- alty or the success of a civil action.

Second, an act of expression can harm a person by causing others to form an adverse opinion of him or by making him an object of public ridicule. Third, as Justice Holmes said, The Sexy massagr stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shout- ing fire in a theatre and causing a panic.

Fourth, an act of expression may contribute to the production of a harmful act by Woman looking for sex cangkrep else, and at least in some cases, the harmful consequences of the latter act may justify making the former a crime as. And fifth, an action which would bring about a drastic decrease in the general level of personal safety by radically increas- ing the capacity of most citizens to inflict harm on each other should be subject to restrictions Woman looking for sex cangkrep.

The idea of harm itself has been specified in relation to freedom of expres- sion as harm to social interests instead of personal harm. Guinn has drawn attention to the potential conflict between Woman looking for sex cangkrep expression which itself serves some social interests to other social interests.

Thus, when the act of expression promotes an important social interest or valuerestrict- ing that act would require the identification of an equally compelling inter- est or Woman looking for sex cangkrep that would be harmed by the act of expression.

Where free expression or the interests it serves are deemed important, these cumulative concerns justify the development of a preventive policy of protecting free expression. The state may decide to refrain from regulating expression not because these acts advance a social value or interest, but out of concern that the attempt to control that expressive act may have the unintended conse- quence of limiting or chilling other expressions that would advance soci- etys interests.

Such a policy is based on the fear that any fault in the wall of protection represents the first step on a slippery slope of declining freedom. According to Guinn the type of Woman looking for sex cangkrep most suitable for protection is political expression in a broad sense. Non-protectable, because Woman looking for sex cangkrep of social value, are expressions creating danger, hate speech and obscenity. States should not impose any restrictions on freedom of expression that are not in accordance with the standards set out in Principle 3.

This implies, among other things, that restrictions: i are clearly and narrowly defined and respond to a press- ing social need, ii are the least intrusive measure Male massage windsor, in the sense that there is no other measure which would be effective and yet less restrictive of freedom of expression; iii are not overbroad, in the sense that they do not restrict speech in a wide or untargeted way, or go beyond the scope of harmful speech and rule out legitimate speech; iv are proportionate in the sense that the benefit to the protected interest outweighs the harm to freedom of expression, including in respect to the sanctions they authorize.

States should review their legal framework to ensure that any restrictions on freedom of expres- sion conform to the. As has been argued above, press freedom has a special character which it derives from its role in spreading information, in particular information of a political nature.

This freedom brings along a particular responsibility: the mass media ought to understand themselves as the mandatory of an enlight- ened public whose willingness to learn and Backpage jacksonville ar for criticism they at once presuppose, demand, and reinforce.

Just as the judiciary they ought to preserve their independence from political and social pressure; they ought to be receptive to the publics concerns and proposals, take up these issues and contributions impartially, augment criticisms, and confront the political Mature women seeking sex in woodstock with articulate demands for legitimation Habermas They represent a progressive interpretation of international law and stan- dards, accepted state practice as reflected, inter alia, in national laws and the judgments of national courtsand the general principles of law recognised by the community of nations ARTICLE 19 2.

All persons are equal before the law and are entitled Woman looking for sex cangkrep the equal protection of the law.

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Everyone has the right to be free of discrimination based on grounds such as race, gender, ethnicity, religion or belief, disability, age, sexual orientation, language, politi- cal or other opinion, national or social origin, nationality, property, birth or other sta- tus. Habermas adds that freedom of the press, radio and television, as well as Woman looking for sex cangkrep right to engage in these areas, safeguards the media infra- structure of public communication; such liberties are thereby supposed to preserve openness for competing opinions and a representative diversity of voices.

you Hedi Hinzler, my land lady and substitute mother who let me live at her home gave me valuable lessons on how to search for books in the jungle of Leiden law library. enous administration, Mas Tjokrosonto (Wedono17 in Cangkrep, Purworejo) The attack was related to his report linking police to a prisoner sex. you Hedi Hinzler, my land lady and substitute mother who let me live looking at the local and regional context, rather than departing from Siebert et al. Mas Tjokrosonto (Wedono17 in Cangkrep. Diah's involvement in a sex scandal. in LBH. used by Hafas when describing the performance of Minister of Information.

He highlights the Woman looking for sex cangkrep of the public sphere in establish- ing canngkrep action. This public sphere can best be described as a network for communicating information and points of view i.

The streams of communication are in Woman looking for sex cangkrep process filtered and synthesised in such a way that they coalesce into lookking of topically specified Womzn opinions Habermas What is the relevance of the ideas and concepts above to this research? In my view they provide the broad normative framework needed for the legal Woman looking for sex cangkrep of press freedom conducted in this dissertation.

Acts of expres- sion can be both violent and arbitrarily destructive, and it seems unlikely that anyone will maintain that as a class they should be caangkrep from legal restrictions Scanlon Mills Woman looking for sex cangkrep principle, its elaboration on freedom of expression by Scanlon, and Guinns and Habermas ideas on balancing the interests of freedom of expression and other socially impor- Woman looking for sex cangkrep interests are important analytical tools to examine limitations on press freedom not looknig for analysing cases, but also for vor laws and policies.

The bottom line is that press freedom must be protected in order to promote a democratic society and respect for human rights. Arguably, press freedom is the most important fundamental freedom in pro- moting democracy and the rule of law. In John Milton already stated in the classic Areopagitica that a free press will advance a democracy by performing Womn function of a watchdog in preventing the government from abusing its citizens and manipulating polit- ical processes.

As a social institution, the press plays a unique role in inform- ing foe public, shaping public Naughty housewives looking nsa worcester massachusetts, and checking abuses of government power. This unique role is sometimes referred to as the fourth estate: the press acts as a fourth, unofficial check on the three official state branches.

In this manner it has been key to promoting the expansion Woman looking for sex cangkrep civil and political. The press is also central to promoting a balance of power in developing the political economy, because it can represent the pub- lic in controlling, understanding, and informing the government about the course and consequences of its policies Meyerson Regardless of the ideological differences loiking the various socio-political sys- tems of the world, press freedom as a logical extension of mans inalienable freedom of expression is of universal validity Oloyede In prac- tice, however, press banning, tort suits for libel and slander, defamation, intimidation Womab killing of journalists and many Woman looking for sex cangkrep acts have continued to threaten press freedom around the world.

Such violations do not only come from the government, but also from paramilitary or other social groups. If there is no safety for Woman looking for sex cangkrep in reporting, it is easy to repress freedom of expression in general.

Press freedom is constitutionally protected in Indonesia under Woman looking for sex cangkrep article about freedom of expression. As such it is part of the framework forming the basis for constitutionalism, which can be defined as the political doctrine that claims political authority should be bound by institutions restraining the exercise of power.

Human rights are a central component of constitu- tionalism, as is the separation of powers Lane Woman looking for sex cangkrep Constitutionalism can be considered as a particular form Woman looking for sex cangkrep the rule of law.

This thesis intends to discuss press freedom in the normative light Woman looking for sex alta constitutionalism. In so doing, it does not limit itself to a doctrinal analysis of laws defining press freedom, but also looks at factors influencing both these laws and their implementation.

The basic functions of the Womaan of law are, first, to curb arbitrary and inequi- table use of state power, and second, cangkreo protect citizens property and their lives from infringements or assaults by fellow citizens Bedner In the context of press freedom cangkre; these functions are relevant. They may be achieved through different mechanisms or elementswhich in various combinations together constitute a particular form of the rule of law. Bed- ners article provides an overview of legal and empirical questions one may ask to assess whether these elements have been realised, thus combining them into a single model Bedner States also differ in the degree to which they are democratic and how inva- sive they are in regulating the press.

Combining these two continuums leads to the following typology:. Positive Absence Negative Absence. The first type is the protective or liberal-democratic state under the rule of law, where the state guarantees the freedom of the press and uses Woman looking for sex cangkrep power to protect the press from infringements by other citizens.

The second type of state is the libertarian one, where the state leaves the press completely to its own devices: it does not infringe on press freedom, but neither does it pro- tect the press against any actions by citizens that may undermine press free- dom within the limits of the swx such as concentration of press ownership or harassment by civil suits.

The combination of a non-democratic state without rule of law and cankrep lack of state interference leads Woman looking for sex cangkrep a situation where the press can be harassed at will by the powerful citizens and officials acting on behalf of their own interests alike.

And finally, a non-democratic state without rule of law but where the state does interfere is repressive or authoritarian. This typology has been used in the present study Womn identify how the Indonesian state and its press policies have moved along both axes.

As we will see, the Indonesian state has taken all four forms at different points in time. The next chart indicates in WWoman detail what types of intervention are associated with these four types.

State Intervention Press banning or curbing. Free political expression. Free to publish whatever they like Non-state violence without interference from paramilitary pressure government or from other persons or group. The present research started in January At that time press freedom in Indonesia had come under serious pressure when compared to the czngkrep ous early years of Reformasi. Journalists and editors increasingly fell victim to legal and non-legal attacks from social and political elite figures who felt their interests were harmed by press reports.

The situation became worse inwhen journalists were killed in Maluku and Papua. Many cangkfep physical attacks cangkdep journalists and editors occurred throughout the country, and the government banned Radio Era Baru in Batam and passed several measures Woman looking for sex cangkrep press freedom.

Various anti-press legislations were passed by the government. InReporters Sans Frontires ranked Indonesia atwhich was the worst Black man seeking cashtown pennsylvania submissive woman sincebut in Indo- nesia even dropped toout of countries. In short, this research was conducted at a time of deteriorating press freedom. As already mentioned such press repression has aex long history, which start- ed even before Indonesia became independent.

Looikng of the legal provisions that are still important today such as those in the Penal Code were creat- ed first by the Dutch colonial Womzn of the Netherlands-Indies.